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Science (2015) Grade(s): 09-12 - Physics


Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).

Unpacked Content

Scientific and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models


Students know:
  • The different forms of energy.
  • How to recognize work being done.
  • The law of conservation of energy.


Students are able to:
  • Construct models to illustrate phenomena.
  • Recognize different forms of energy.
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy to a system.
  • Graph data.
  • Determine the area under a curve on a graph.


Students understand that:
  • Energy is the ability to do work and energy can be transformed into different forms of energy while obeying the law of conservation of energy.


  • area under curve
  • model
  • graph
  • work
  • energy
  • gravitational potential energy
  • kinetic energy
  • elastic potential energy
  • thermal energy
  • sound energy
  • friction
  • force
  • velocity
  • mass
  • distance
  • law of conservation of energy
  • systems
  • work-energy theorem